The Principality of Monaco is a microstate on the Mediterranean Sea, which is completely enclosed on the land side by France. Monaco has an area of 2.02 km² and is the smallest country in the world after Vatican City.
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Monaco became a full member of the United Nations in 1993. In 2002, a new treaty between France and Monaco stipulated that if there are no heirs to the throne to continue the dynasty, the principality nevertheless remains an independent state. The military defense of Monaco remains the responsibility of France. More foreigners than Monegasques live in Monaco. Of the inhabitants, 17% is Monegasque; 28% have French nationality and a significant part of the remaining 55% is Italian.